JKConditioning, Fitness Coach
The review paper by Aagaard and Andersen titled Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes, discusses concurrent strength and endurance training in highly trained endurance athletes.  Previous research in this area is equivocal.  Some studies show improvement in endurance performance while others have found an attenuated cardiovascular response.  This paper reviews over 50 research articles and forms an opinion on whether strength and endurance training is a good idea.

Strength vs. Endurance

 
Concurrent strength and endurance training makes sense – at least in the context of their individual definitions.  Strength training has the goal of improving strength usually measured as rate of force development and the maximum voluntary contraction in a group of muscles.

The Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd Ed.) textbook defines strength as “the maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can generate at a specified velocity.”

Harvey Newton, in Explosive Lifting for Sports states “strength training implies that the athlete is actually using a high enough resistance, applied with a relatively low number of repetitions, to actually gain strength.”

Mel Siff in Supertraining defines dynamic strength-endurance as “…cyclic exercises in which considerable tension is repeated without interruption during each cycle of movement (e.g. in running…)…”

In the Science and Practice of Strength Training (2nd Ed.), “strength or muscular strength is the ability to generate maximum maximorum external force…recall that in mechanics and physics, force is defined as an instantaneous measure of the interaction between two bodies.” (in this case, between your foot and the ground)

Endurance training on the other hand has a totally different goal – improving the ability to sustain a repeated task (e.g. running) or the ability to maintain a certain level of muscle contraction (e.g. front plank or grappling when wrestling).

So, you can see, both goals of training are very different from each other and they are obtained via performing exercises on opposite ends of the intensity spectrum; however, does combining the two different training programs improve endurance performance or inhibit it?  The concern goes the other way as well – aerobic training added to strength training may reduce anaerobic performance qualities and reduce high strength and power performance (but since we are worried about running fast, we’ll just consider adding strength training to an existing running routine).

To lift or not to lift

 
You’ll notice among running friends or even among the elites that they’ll say running and running alone will make me a faster runner.  “I don’t need to go to the gym, I need to run.” Or “Why would I want to fatigue myself with that type of training and negatively affect my running ability?”  These might be a few comments you might hear.  Some of these comments though, have their place because of two things:

1. Mitochondrial Dilution and 2. Increased weight.

Depending on the program, hypertrophy or the increase in muscle size can be a wanted result, say in a body builder or a dude in their 20’s trying to look like Captain America.  For an endurance, runner – this can be bad and detrimental to performance.  Muscle fibers increase in size with hypertrophic resistance training.  What’s inside the cells does not increase at the same rate (and may not increase at all) – meaning the “stuff” inside, like the mitochondria, become fewer per unit area – this is known as mitochondrial dilution.  Now, you might be asking what the heck are ‘mitochondria’?  Mitochondria are known as the powerhouse of the cell because it is where aerobic metabolism takes place.  Because there are now fewer mitochondria per unit area, less energy can be produced to power the larger muscle(s) meaning that fatigue sets in much quicker.

Increased weight, on the other hand, means you have to carry more weight around the track or on the road when racing.  It’s self-explanatory why this would require more energy and be less efficient compared to running at a lower body weight.  Think of wearing a very bulky running shoe.  The oxygen cost of wearing a shoe of this nature compared to a lower profile lighter shoe is much greater and obviously negatively effects running performance.

However, Aagaard and Andersen found that the benefits of endurance training and the benefits of strength training were both seen without any negative effects to endurance running performance. The muscle size did not change and capillary density was not affected.  This bodes well for the endurance athlete.

The heavy resistance strength training protocol was found to:

  • improve neuromuscular communication (rate of force development and maximal voluntary contraction),
  • increase tendon stiffness,
  • increase the percentage of Type IIA muscle fibers.

If you’re wondering, Type IIA muscle fibers are:

  • A type of fast twitch muscle
  • AKA Fast twitch oxidative-glycolytic because they are able to use oxidative and glycolytic mechanisms for energy
  • Suited to fast, repetitive, low intensity movement
  • They possess large numbers of mitochondria making them fatigue resistant
  • High ability to recovery fast after exercise

The Bottom Line

 
Aagaard and Andersen conclude “…that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (high-volume, heavy-resistance strength training protocols.”  So there you have it – it’s beneficial to add strength training to an existing endurance-training program.  But now there are many factors to take into consideration…

What to think about when lifting:

  • Am I lifting enough weight to elicit strength gains?  Is my maximum voluntary contraction improving?
  • Am I improving my rate of force development?  Am I training power?
  • Am I able to recovery properly between strength training and running workouts?
  • Have I chosen the correct exercises and am I performing in the correct order?
  • Am I using the right “tools” or equipment at the gym?

There are many things to consider when designing a strength-training program for a runner, as there is when designing your yearly running program.

Thanks for reading,

-JK

References:

Aagaard, P. & Andersen, J.L. (2010). Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports 20, Suppl 2, 39-47.

photo credit: jacsonquerubin via photopin cc

I’m 35 and I started at JKC in November of 2019. I was coming off the win of the Royal St. John’s Regatta in 2019, and our crew was chomping at the bit to be stronger and faster for 2020. The reputation of JKC leached into our group and away we went! Unfortunately the regatta was cancelled due to COVID-19, but I just loved JKC so much I stuck around. JKC is different from other gyms because the level of experience the team has is unparalleled. Jon, Thomas and Craig all mesh well together and mentor me in a way that I know they love what they do and are genuinely excited to guide me towards my goals (and beyond). I really enjoy the atmosphere, the sense of community and all the positive vibes that I experience in every session. There’s never a time I don’t want to go because I’m motivated by the team’s coaching style and I get results.

Astrid Billfalk-Kelly

Personal Strength Training by Thomas King

I wanted to add strength training to my cardio, but have always felt gyms to be a bit intimidating, and was worried I would hurt myself without some supervision and help. JKC was highly recommended by several work colleagues. Thomas and Jon are both fantastic, making sure that everyone gets a highly personalized work out in a very supportive environment. The attention to detail and professionalism are second to none. The groups are very small, but very supportive and make the workouts even more fun. Since getting pregnant (36 weeks as I write this) I’m so happy that they continue to help me get stronger while always being safe.

I’ve always struggled with both my weight and anxiety throughout my life. As a writer you live a pretty sedentary lifestyle filled with both realistic and unrealistic deadlines, so I needed something to get me off my butt and to get me moving. JK has been a godsend during this past year and a half in particular. The pandemic has been tough, but workouts with both Thomas and Jon have really helped reduce the stress and strain of a global pandemic, and added an anchor of normalcy back into my life — which has been worth its weight in gold.

JKC has created an incredibly inclusive environment that’s filled with all kinds of supportive folks from all kinds of different backgrounds. For folks like myself, being surrounded by people with such athletic ability can be intimidating in most gyms. It can actually be a deterrent, and it sometimes has been for me. But, at JKC it’s far from that — it’s inspirational. Everyone supports one another. Which is something that’s not easily found in this day and age, inside of a gym or out. Not to sound like a total cheeseball here, but it really feels like a family.

I came to JKC through recommendations from my peers from lululemon. As a current ambassador, I’ve been introduced to legacy ambassadors, like Jon, and I knew a bunch of other people from the store were working out here so I wanted to give it a go. I often dread lower body workouts so I started coming here to do legs. I’ve had such great progress that I now come twice a week— and, I no longer hate leg day!

I’ve never experienced this sort of hybrid between group workouts and personalized service. Many group strength training services offer a sort of one-size-fits-all workout for the general population, which has never been of interest to me, because I want my workout tailored to my needs! I LOVE that you can be in a group setting while doing your own personal program; I love the camaraderie and community at JKC, and, I’ve seen incredible results thus far! Jon is always so attuned to what I need.

I heard somewhere that achieving your health goals is determined largely by what you do in the kitchen. I am grateful to have found Julia who brought direction and accountability to this most important piece for me. Having Julia in my corner has brought me confidence and certainty that I am on my way to achieving my goals. I highly recommend her if you are serious about making a change and feeling better about your health.

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